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The Marmara Sea
Turned an Orange Color

Seawater close to the shore near Tekirdag in the eastern Marmara region showed strange streaks of orange color, leading outwards into the Marmara Sea, due to a multiplication of a special kind of plankton which cannot be seen with the bare eye, but why it happened and other factors we will process on them.

Before that, some critical information is important to know which is mentioned below:

Why is the sea color being blue?


It's commonly believed that the ocean is blue because it's reflecting the blue sky. But this is a misconception.
The ocean is blue because of the way it absorbs sunlight, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
When sunlight hits the sea, the water strongly absorbs long-wavelength colors at the red end of the light spectrum, as well as short-wavelength light, including violet and ultraviolet. The remaining light that we see is mostly made up of blue wavelengths.
However, NOAA notes that the sea may take on other hues, including red and green, if light bounces off objects floating near the surface of the water, such as sediment and algae.
Just how blue the water is depending on how much of it is available to absorb the light. For instance, water in a glass is clear — there aren't enough water molecules to really absorb the light.
But seawater appears bluer the farther you travel down the water column. The water molecules absorb infrared, red, and ultraviolet light first, and then yellow, green and violet.
Blue light is absorbed the least, giving it the greatest sea penetration depth, according to NASA.
This fact is clear if you look at unedited underwater photos that weren't taken with a camera flash or another artificial light source — even the most vibrant of tropical fish look blue.

Why are the oceans and seas have different colors in different places?

A glass of water will, of course, appear clear as visible light passes through it with little to no obstruction. But if a body of water is deep enough that light isn't reflected off the bottom, it appears blue. Basic physics explains why: Light from the sun is made up of a spectrum of different wavelengths. The longer wavelengths appear to our eyes as the reds and oranges, while the shorter ones appear blue and green. When the sun's light strikes the ocean, it interacts with water molecules and can be absorbed or scattered. If nothing is in the water except water molecules, the light of shorter wavelengths is more likely to hit something and scatter, making the ocean appear blue. The longer, red portions of sunlight, meanwhile, are absorbed near the surface.

The depth and the ocean bottom also influence whether the surface appears a dusky dark blue, as in parts of the Atlantic, or casts a sapphire-like shimmer as in tropical locations. "In Greece, the water is this beautiful turquoise color because the bottom is either white sand or white rocks," Feldman explains. "What happens is the light comes down and blue light gets down, hits the bottom and then reflects back up so you make this beautiful light blue color in the water."

Color reflects ocean health

And then there's the fact that the ocean is rarely clear, but is instead teeming with tiny plant and animal life or filled with suspended sediment or contaminants. Oceanographers monitor the ocean's color as doctors read the vital signs of their patients. The color seen on the ocean's surface reflects what's going on in its vast depths.

The climate change effect

Over the past 50 years, ocean zones with depleted oxygen have more than quadrupled to an area roughly the size of the European Union, or 1,728,099 square miles (4,475,755 square kilometers), according to a study published in January 2018 in the journal Science. Part of the cause may be an increase in ocean temperature due to climate change since warmer water supports less oxygen. In coastal areas, phytoplankton blooms are suspected to be the cause. Phytoplankton may serve as the base of the ocean food chain, but as Feldman says, "Too much of a good thing is not a good thing."

What is the secret of the blue glow in the seawater?

There are exceptions to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, according to the Beatles Lentz Laboratory at the Scripps Institution. For example, the blackfish, scientifically known as Melanocetus Niger, produces red light. Fish that are prey to blackfish do not recognize red light, so this adaptation allows the salmon to use the light as the focus.
According to the Letz Laboratory, plankton will often be seen. They use their light as a way to scare off predators and hope they don't get caught. That's why walking in the water and stirring the water "shines the sea" that Wallace photographed.
According to Letz Laboratories, plankton combine to produce a molecule called luciferin with oxygen to produce their own light and often use a catalytic enzyme called luciferase for a chemical reaction. Different types of luciferin and luciferase can produce different colors of bioluminescence, from red and orange to green and blue.


What is plankton?


Though they are microscopic in size, organisms called plankton to play a big role in marine ecosystems. They provide the base for the entire marine food. The word plankton comes from the Greek word plankton, which means “drifter.” Their name fits, because plankton do not swim on their own or stay in one place like coral. They drift about in the water, allowing tides, currents, and other factors to determine where they go. 

There are two main types of plankton: phytoplankton, which is plants, and zooplankton, which are animals. Zooplankton and other small marine creatures eat phytoplankton and then become food for fish, crustaceans, and other larger species.
Phytoplankton makes its energy through photosynthesis, the process of using chlorophyll and sunlight to create energy. Like other plants, phytoplankton takes in carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Phytoplankton accounts for about half of the photosynthesis on the planet, making them one of the world’s most important producers of oxygen. Phytoplankton relies on nutrients found in their surroundings, such as phosphate, nitrate, and calcium, to thrive.
Plankton can be found in saltwater and freshwater. One way to tell if a body of water has a large plankton population is to look at its clarity. Very clear water usually has less plankton than water that is more green or brown in color.

The Sea of Marmara

A northwest extension of the Mediterranean Sea separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey, thus it separates the two continents.
The Marmara Sea connects to the Aegean Sea via the Dardanelles Strait, and to the Black Sea through the Bosporus Strait. This body of water serves as a primary highway for the transport of energy to Europe from Russia and western Asia. In 2005 over 55,000 ships, including almost 6,000 oil tankers passed through it, most carrying Russian oil.
The Marmara is one of Turkey’s many maritime highways. Fast catamaran ferryboats zoom cars and passengers across it connecting Istanbul ‘s Yenikapi Feri boats Terminal and Kabatas with the cities of Yalova, Bursa’s docks at Guzelyali and Mudanya, and Bandirma
The hydrography of the Sea of Marmara has been the subject of several research initiatives, particularly in the last two decades of the twentieth century, and a complete review of these is provided by Besiktepe The two-layer stratification and two-layer current systems in the straits and in the Sea of Marmara are driven by the density and sea-level differences between the adjoining seas.

Why the sea turns orange in Marmara?


In the spring and summer seasons, awakening begins in the sea, as in all nature. Some creatures multiply from this awakening. The biological creature called Plankton has an explosion in itself during proliferation. Depending on this explosion, according to the type of plankton, the sea is orange, brown, green. The color of the plankton is formed along the coastline due to the proliferation of the plankton because this creature has color cells in it. This coloration starts from the beaches of Tekirdag, Sarkoy and Hoskoy, and goes from the coastline to the interior of Marmara.
Locals are reportedly concerned by the phenomenon, wondering whether the discoloration had been caused by pollution from household waste or whether it arose due to chemicals disposed of by a ship. However, as professor Dr. Sezginer Tuncer from Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University (COMU) explained, the phenomenon is caused by the rapid multiplication of a microorganism called "noctiluca," a single-cell organism with two flagella.
As summary It is not a situation that will cause fear and rush in the color change in the sea. We can call it a natural ecological event. This is a temporary event. It is not pollution caused by domestic, urban, or industrial wastes that will cause haste.


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